Rat Handout

Background

The Norway rat is native to Japan and Eastern Asia and is mainly a burrowing species. It lived along stream banks in Asia and spread rapidly into the canals and rice fields although in Malaysia it was strictly confined to seaports. This species was not known in Europe until about 1553 and it probably came into western Europe by ships instead of by overland caravans. It arrived in North America about 1775. The Norway or Norwegian rat is more often associated with populated regions but where a mean annual temperature above 11 C (52 F) occurs and free living populations exist. They are extremely adaptable and inquisitive but they tend to avoid new objects in their natural environment which may account for much of their craftiness. The Norwegian rat in the wild will eat practically anything it can cut with its teeth. A group of experimental animals given a free choice of food over a five year period selected different foods in such proportions so that they maintained good health. The diet consisted of a wild variety of plant and animal foods such as seeds, nuts, grains, vegetables, fruits, meats, fish and invertebrates. In the wild these rodents destroy far more than they eat. They also gnaw insulation from wire and occasionally cut through lead pipes and concrete dams. On a world basis the direct damage caused each year amounts to billions of dollars. The Norwegian rat harbors and carries such diseases as Bubonic plague, typhus, Salmonella (food poisoning), Rabies, Tularemia, and Trichinosis. The plague, which is transmitted to human beings by rat fleas, reduced the population of Europe by 25% or more at various times. Rat-born typhus has altered human destiny more than the influence of any person in history. Rat-born diseases are believed to have taken more lives in the last ten centuries than all the wars and revolutions ever fought. The common laboratory rat, an albinistic strain of Norwegian rat is used in many phases of biological research, including the study of diets, diseases, and genetics in man. On the whole, the Norwegian rat and the house mouse have probably affected man's existence both for better or worse more than any laboratory animal. The rat gastrointestinal system has two unique characteristics in that the rat does not possess a gall bladder and is incapable of vomiting. The latter characteristic makes the rat a good model for toxicity testing and is also taken into consideration in the selection of rodenticides for wild rat population control.

Handling Techniques

Handling is easily accomplished if the operator approaches the animal in a calm and slow approach. The rat's natural inquisitiveness should be taken into consideration and the animal should be given the opportunity to smell your hand as you approach it. It is recommended that gloves not be used, in that the glove masks the natural human odor of the operator and prevents the animal from becoming acquainted with the operator and recognizing him over a period of time when handling may be necessary. The rat should always be handled by grasping the body utilizing the thumb and little finger under the pectoral girdles and using the forefinger to gently restrain the head. The hand should be reclined to rest the body of the rat in the palm of the hand. In this position the rat can easily be injected IP in the lower quadrants of the abdomen and also identified with the various techniques discussed in the paper on identification techniques in rodents. Handling the rat by the tail can lead to serious problems for both the rat and the operator. The rat dislikes being handled by the tail and is much more inclined to be aggressive. This can lead to rather severe bites and scratches which can easily be eliminated by correct handling. Handling the rat by the tail if not properly done can also lead to slippage of the skin and underlying tissue from the bone and cartilage of the tail which can lead to necrosis of this tissue with subsequent sloughing and loss of that aspect of the tail. This can be very serious in that one of the selected bleeding and injection sites for the rat is the tail vein. An injury to the tail would preclude the utilization of these valuable bleeding and injection sites. If the tail is used, it should be grasped at the base of the tail, the animal lifted up and placed immediately on a safe surface. Any prolong time in the air will cause the animal to go into a spin. Injection sites on the rat include the IP injection in the lower quadrants of the abdomen, the tail vein which runs on the dorsal aspect of the tail and, in some cases, a cut down on the femoral vein or artery can be accomplished with minimal problems and closed with skin staples or sutures subsequent to the injection. Small samples of blood may be obtained from the medial canthus of the eye utilizing a capillary tube and introduction of the tip of the tube into the medial canthus, rotating the tube gently until the desired amount of blood is obtained. This is best accomplished under light anesthesia. Repeated blood sampling utilizing this method can be accomplished if a suitable period of two to three days between drawings is allowed. Subcutaneous injections can be accomplished utilizing the skin fold at the back of the neck.

Experimental Uses

The laboratory rat is second only to the mouse in the utilization as a research animal. The rat has been utilized for a wide range of studies involving practically all fields of research as well as other nutritional, genetic, and environmental studies. There are various strains of inbred rat that are available with spontaneous tumor production and other physiologic and anatomical differences and other unique aspects that should be considered before and any research study is undertaken utilizing the rat as a model. Various random bred strains are used in toxicology studies and other nutritional and biochemical work. The rat is widely used because of its suitability for a wide variety of experimental designs, its docility and ease of handling and care, its short gestation period, wide dietary preferences, intelligence and availability. When selecting a particular inbred or random bred strain of animals for utilization, the availability and source should be closely considered. The laboratory rat is commercially available through many sources, some of which are much more preferable than others. The investigator is encouraged to investigate fully a suggested commercial source before utilizing the animals from these sources as the quality of the animal received and supplied may vary greatly from one supplier to another. Once a particular strain is selected, a suitable and practical breeder should be selected and maintained through the entire study. Strain differences between individual breeders may be considerable and it is therefore recommended that changing from one supplier to another be minimized.

Husbandry

Rats should be kept in rooms with the temperature set at about 70F and humidity at 50%. Lights should not be too bright since white rats are albinos and too much light damages their retina. They are diurnal which means they need about 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness each day. Their bedding should not be wood shaving since some wood emits hepatotoxic fumes. They should have fresh mouse or rat food and water available at all times. Their bedding should be changed 2 or 3 times a week to prevent the buildup of urea.

Signs of Disease

Signs of disease in the rat can be broken down into several groups:

Cutaneous Signs - Excessive hair loss may be one o the first signs of a skin abnormality. Rough hair coat can indicate several situations from old age to disease. Rats housed together have a tendency to tail bite. Care should be taken for an swelling or mass in or under the skin. It could be an abscess or a tumor. Any abnormal temperatures or humidities, especially rapid changes, can induce injuries. Uncomplicated Sendai virus infection can cause deaths in pregnant or aged rats.

Gastrointestinal Signs - Diarrhea is seldom seen in rats. Slobbering in rats is associated with suffocation, heat stress, and malocclusion.

Respiratory Signs - Sniffling and a nasal discharge are associated with respiratory Mycoplasmosis commonly. A red ocular and nasal discharge indicates many debilitating diseases and stress conditions.

Neuromuscular Signs - Otitis interna, pituitary adenoma, and encephalitis may cause a head tilt in rats. Trauma, encephalitis, pituitary neoplasia, the rat virus, and otitis interna can lead to incoordination in rats. Brain lesions, trauma of the spinal cord, malnutrition, and arthritis can produce limb weakness or paralysis. Abscesses at the head of the tail or in the perineum often extend into the spinal canal. Corneal opacities can be related to irritation from food, bedding dusts, to injury or infection.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENERAL DATA

This is for informational purposes only, always consult with your veterinarian for the latest information.
COMMON NAME RAT
ORDER ROMURIDAEDENTIA
FAMILY
GENUS RATTUS
SPECIES NORVEGICUS
TEMPERATURE IN C 36.0-39.5
TEMPERATURE IN F 100.7
RESPIRATORY B/M 70-150
RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOL. 1lm 0 .16-.24
RESPIRATORY TIDAL VOLUME m 0.6-2.0
PaCO 2 mmHg 42
OXYGEN USE ML/G/HR 0.68-1.1
HEART RATE B/M 250-450
ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE mm 84-134/90
ARTERIAL BLOOD pH 7.35
BLOOD CLOTTING TIME SEC 20
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg TOTAL 50-70
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg EXSANGU 20
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg 1 SAMPLE 5
BLOOD CALCIUM mg/100ml 5.3-13
BLOOD PHOSPHORUS mg/100ml 5.3-8.3
BLOOD SODIUM mEq/L 144
BLOOD CHLORIDE mEq/L . 110
BLOOD POTASSIUM mEq/L 5.9
BLOOD MAGNESIUM mg/100ml 1.6
BLOOD CHOLESTEROL mg/100ml 40-130
BLOOD SERUM PROTEIN gm/100m 5.6-7.6
BLOOD ALBUMIN gm/100ml 3.4-4.8
BLOOD GLOBULIN gm/100ml 1.8-3.0
BLOOD GLUCOSE - mg/100ml 50-135
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN MG/DL 15-21
CREATININE MG/DL 0.2-.8
TOTAL BILIRUBIN MG/DL 0.2-.55
ALK.PHOSPHATASE i.u./L 101
SERUM LIPIDS MG/DL 70-415
SERUM PHOSPHOLIPIDS MG 36-130
SERUM TRIGLYCERIDES MG/DL 26-145
BLOOD HEMATOCRIT % 35-48
BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN g/100ml 12-18
BLOOD RBC 10 6/mm 3 7-10
BLOOD PLATELETS 10 3/mm 3 500-1300
BLOOD LEUCOCYTES % 14/6-17
BLOOD NEUTROPHILS % 3.1/9-34
BLOOD EOSINOPHILS % 0.3/0-6
BLOOD BASOPHILS % 0.1/0-1.5
BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES % 10/65-85
BLOOD MONOCYTES % 0.3/0-5
FEED DAILY gm/kg 10g/100g
WATER 10-12ml/*
ROOM TEMPERATURE C 21-27
ROOM HUMIDITY % 45-55
ROOM LIGHT HOURS/DAY 12
LITTER MATERIAL ANY
WEIGHT ADULT MALE gm 300-520
WEIGHT ADULT FEMALE gm 250-300
WEIGHT AT BIRTH gm 5-6
BREEDING AGE-MALE DAYS 65-300
BREADING AGE-FEMALE DAYS 65/200
ESTRUS CYCLE DAYS 4-5
GESTATION DAYS 20-23
WEANING AGE DAYS 21/40-50
LITTER SIZE 6-12
BREEDING AFTER PARTURITION IMMED.
BREEDING LIFE-MALE YEARS 1-1.5
BREEDING LIFE-FEMALE YEARS 1-1.5
BREEDING/MATING DATA MALE 1/10
MILK FAT % 13
MILK LACTOSE % 3.2
MILK PROTEIN % 9.7
VAGINAL OPENING
BODY SURFACE AREA CM 2 10.5
DIPLOID NUMBER KARYOTYPE 42
LIFE SPAN YEARS 2.5-3.5
GI TRANSITION TIME HOURS 12-24
CAGE SIZE L X W X H 70 in 2 X 7

Rat Formulary

Anesthesia/Analgesia Anticholinergic Antiparasitic Euthanasia
Anti-inflammatory Antibiotics Miscellaneous Notes
ANESTHETIC, ANALGESIC Dose Comments /  Back to Top
ACETAMINOPHEN (TYLENOL) 1- MG/ML DW (14) // 110-300 MG/KG PO(4) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC
ACETHYLSALICYLICATE ACID (ASPIRIN) 100 MG/KG PO Q4H(2)(4) // 20 SC(1) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC
ACETYLPROMAZINE (ACEPROMAZINE) - DOSAGE 0.5-1.0 MG/KG IM (14) // 1-2 MG/KG IM TRANQUILIZER-PHENOTHIAZINE
ALPHA CHOLORALOSE (NOT SURVIVAL) 5% 45-65 MG/KG IP(1) HYPNOTIC
BUPIVACAINE (MARCAINE) AS NEEDED LOCAL ANESTHETIC
BUPRENORPHINE (BUPRENEX) 0.02-0.50 MG/KG SC, IP, IV q6-12h (14) // 0.01-0.1 (.05) MG/KG IP(1) 12 //0.1-0.5 MG/KG SC(1)  /IV Q8-12 (2)/(4) (USE 0.05) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONIST V, ANALGESIC
BUTORPHANOL (STADOL OR TORBUTROL) 1-5 MG/KG SC q2-4h (14) // 23.3 MG/KG SC(1) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONIST V, ANALGESIC
CHLORAL HYDRATE 5% 300-450 MG/KG IP(1) NOTE: A DYNAMIC ILEUS HYPNOTIC
DIAZAPAM (VALIUM) DOSAGE 3-5 MG/KG IM (14) // 2.5 MG/KG IP TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
DIAZAPAM - DURATION OF EFFECT 1-2 HOURS TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
DIAZAPAM - TIME TO EFFECT 2-3 MIN TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
FENTANYL/DROPERIDOL (INNOVAR-VET)-DOSAGE 0.3-0.5 ML/KG IM (14) // 0.02-0.06 ML/100GM IP / 0.3 ML/KG IM(1) NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FENTANYL/DROPERDOL - DURATION EFFECT 15-30 MIN NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FENTANYL/DROPERIDOL - TIME TO EFFECT 8/3 MIN NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE 2.5 MG/KG SC q12-24h (14) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC
IBUPROFEN 10-30 MG/KG PO q4h ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
INACTIN 80 MG/KG IP(1)/(2) ULTRA SHORT BARBITURATE
KETAMINE (KETASET, VETALAR)  22 MG/KG IM (25-40 MG/KG HEAVY SEDATION) (14) // 60-100 MG/KG IM(1) DISSOCIATIVE, CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE
KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE 40-80 IP/2.5 IP IM MG/KG (1)//75/2.5 IM(2) DISSOCIATIVE/TRANQUILIZER
KETAMINE-DIAZEPAM (VALIUM) 40-80/5-10 MG/KG IP(1) DISSOCIATIVE/TRANQUILIZER
KETAMINE-XYLAZINE (ROMPUN) 75-95/5 MG/KG IM IP (14) // 40-80/5-10 MG/KG IP IM(1) NOTE: STUDY SHOWED SEVERE NECROSIS IM(1) DISSOCIATIVE/ANALGESIC
MEPERIDINE (DEMEROL) 20 MG/KG IM SC(1)(14) Q2-3H NARCOTIC II
METHOHEXITAL (BREVITAL/BREVANE) 7-10 MG/KG IV (2) // 95 MG/KG IP (6) ULTRA SHORT BARBITURATE IV
MORPHINE 2-5 MG/KG SC q2-4h (14) // 10 MG/KG IM SC (1)Q2-4H(2) NARCOTIC II
NALBUPHINE (NUBAIN)  4-8 MG/KG IM q3h (14) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONIST ANALGESIC
NALOXONE (NARCAN) 0.01-0.1. MG/KG SC IP (14) NARCOTIC REVERSAL
OXYMORPHONE (NUMORPHAN) DOSAGE 0.2-0.5 MG/KG SC IM q6-12h (14) // 0.25-0.5 MG/KG IM NARCOTIC II
PENTAZOCINE (TALWIN-V) 10 MG/KG SC q2-4h (14) // 10 MG/KG SC(2) IM IV Q4H(2) NON-NARCOTIC ANALGESIC IV
PENTOBARBITAL Na (NEMBUTAL) 30-45 MG/KG IP (14) // 40 MG/KG IV IP SEDATION / 60-100 MG/KG IM SURG. ANEST.(1)//25-40 IP(4) BARBITURATE SHORT II, NOT RECOMMENDED, MARGINAL ANALGESIA (14)
PHENYLBUTAZONE (BUTAZOLDIN) 7.5-15 SC /30-100 PO MG/KG (4) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
PROCAINE (NOVOCAIN) NEVER ANESTHETIC LOCAL
PROPOFOL (RAPINOVET) 7.5-10.0 MG/KG IV (14) ANESTHESIA
THIAMYLAL (SURITAL) 20-50 MG/KG IV IP BARBITURATE ULTRA SHORT III
THIOPENTAL (PENTOTHAL) 30 MG/KG IV(3)/20-25 IV(4) BARBITURATE ULTRA SHORT III
TILETAMINE/ZOLAZEPAM (TELAZOL) 50MG BASE/ML 20-40 MG/KG IP 20 IM(1)(14) DISSOCIATE/TRANQUILIZER III
TRIBROMOETHANOL (AVERTIN) (0.25%) 300 MG/KG IP(1)/(2) ANESTHETIC, PERITONEAL ADHESIONS IS NOT FRESHLY PREPARED. 2ND ADMINISTRATION OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH
XYLAZINE (ROMPUN)- DOSAGE 4-8 MG/KG IM ALPHA-2-ADRENERGIC AGONIST SEDATIVE, ANALGESIC, MUSCLE RELAXANT
YOHIMBINE. (YOBINE) 1-2MG/KG XYLAZINE REVERSAL
ANESTHETIC GAS Dose Comments /  Back to Top
HALOTHANE  TO EFFECT INHALANT
ISOFLURANE  TO EFFECT INHALANT
METHOXYFLURANE  TO EFFECT INHALANT
NITROUS OXIDE TO EFFECT INHALANT
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY Dose Comments /  Back to Top
DEXAMETHASONE (AZIUM) 0.5-2.0 MG/KG PO SC  THEN DECREASING DOSE q12h X 3-14 DAYS (14) // 0.06 MG SC IM IV IP STEROID
PREDNISONE (METICORTIN) 0.5-0.22 MG SC IM(14) STEROID
ANTIBIOTIC Dose Comments / Back to Top
AMIKACIN 2-5 MG/KG SC IM q8-12h (14) ANTIBIOTIC
AMOXICILLIN 150 MG/KG SC IM Q12H(2) ANTIBIOTIC
AMPICILLIN (POLYFLEX) 20-100 MG/KG PO SC IM q12h (14) // 2-10 MG/100GM PO BID// OR 50-150 SC Q12H(2) // OR 150 MG/KG Q12H SC(3) BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTIC
BACITRACIN TOPICAL ANTIBIOTIC
CARBENICILLIN 100 MG/KG PO q12h (14) ANTIBIOTIC
CEPHALORIDINE (LORIDINE) 10-25 MG/KG SC IM q24h (14) // 30 IM Q12H(2) // OR 30 BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTIC
CHLORAMPHENICOL PALMITATE (CHLOROMYCETIN) 50-200 MG/KG PO q8h (14) // 50 MG/KG PO BID(3)// OR DW 0.83 MG/ML(3) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
CHLORAMPHENICOL SUCCINATE (CHLOROMYCETIN) 30-50 MG/KG SC IM q12h (14) // 50 MG/KG IM SID 5D(3) // OR Q12H(2) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
CIPROFLOXACIN 7-20 MG/KG PO q12h (14)  BACTERIAL 
DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN NEVER BACTERIAL
DOXYCYCLINE 5 MG/KG PO q12h (14)  BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA.  NOT IN YOUNG OR PREGNANT ANIMALS
ENROFLOXACIN 2.5-5.0 MG/KG PO SC IM q12h (14) BACTERIAL
GENTAMICIN (GENTOCIN) 5 MG/KG SC IM q12h(14)(3)14D AMINOGLYCOSIDES
GRISEOFULVIN (FULVICIN U/F) 25-50 MG/KG PO q12h X 14-60 DAYS (14) // 60 MG/KG PO IN FOOD(3) ANTIFUNGAL
METRONIDAZOLE 10-40 MG/ANIMAL PO q8h(14)  BACTERIAL, ANAEROBES, ADD SUCROSE
NEOMYCIN SULFATE  0.5 MG/ML DW OR 50 MG/KG SC q24h (14) AMINOGLYCOSIDES, DIARRHEA
OXYTETRACYCLINE (LIQUAMYCIN) 0.4 MG/ML DW OR 10-20 MG/KG PO q8h(14) // DW 0.4 MG/ML(3)// 100 MG/KG SC Q12H(2) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
STREPTOMYCIN (BIOTEC) NEVER BACTERIAL
SULFADIMETHOXINE 10-15 MG/KG PO q12h (14) BACTERIAL
SULFAMERAZINE 1 MG/4 G FEED (14) OR 1 MG/ML DW (14) BACTERIAL
SULFAMETHAZINE 1 MG/ML DW (14) // OR DW 0.02%(2) BACT. COCCIDIA, CIT,B
SULFAQUINOXALINE (SULQUIN) 0.25-1.0 MG/ML DW (14) // 0.025% 30days EIMERIA, KLOS. PAST.
TETRACYCLINES 2-5 MG/ML DW (14) OR 10-20 MG /KG PO q8-12h (14) // 100 MG/KG SC SID)(3) // DW 0.55 MG/ML(3) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC//FROG RED LEG
TRIMETHOPRIM (40MG/ML)/SULPHADOXINE (200MG/ML) (TRIBRISSEN) 30 MG/KG PO SC IM q12h (14) // 0.5 ML/KG SC Q12h(2) TRIMETHOPRIM / SULPHONAMIDE
TYLOSIN 0.5 MG/KG DW OR 10 MG/KG PO SC IM q12h (14) // 10 MG/KG SC Q12H(2) // OR IM(3) MACROLIDES
ANTICHOLINERGIC Dose Comments /  Back to Top
ATROPINE - DOSAGE 0.05 MG/KG SC IM(3)(14) ANTICHOLINERGIC
ATROPINE - DURATION EFFECT 15 MIN ANTICHOLINERGIC
ATROPINE - TIME TO EFFECT 10 MIN ANTICHOLINERGIC
ANTIPARASITIC Dose Comments /  Back to Top
DICHLORVOS (VOPONA STRIPS) STRIP 48H/WK//OR1 OVER CAGE 24 H/W(3) ECTOPARASITIC
FENBENDAZOLE  20 MG/KG PO q24h X 5 DAYS (50 FOR GIARDIA) (14) BACTERIAL
IVERMECTIN (IVOMEC) 0.2 MG/KG PO SC q7d X 3 WK MITES (14) OR 25 MG/ML DW 4DAYS/WK X 5 WK PINWORMS (14) // 200 MCG/KG PO SC(3) ANTI-NEMATODES/ECTOPARASITIC, MITES
MEBENDAZOLE (TELMIN) 10 MG/KG PO 5D(3) NEMATODIASIS COSMOCE
NICLOSAMIDE (YOMESAN) 100 MG/KG PO(3) CESTODES-HYMENOLEPSIS
PIPERAZINE 2-5 MG/ML DW X 7 DAYS, OFF 7 DAYS, REPEAT (14) // 100 MG/KG PO(3) // 16GM/GAL WATER + 200 ML KARO SYRUP SIDX3, REPEAT IN 2 WKS (8) ANTI-NEMATODES-SYPHACIA & HET & PINWORMS
PRAZIQUANTEL 30 MG/KG PO q14d X 3 TX (14) CESTODES
PYRVINIUM PAMOATE 0.003% H20 30D SYPH. HETER. ENTEROBIU
SULFAMETHAZINE ETC. (VETA-METH) 1 MG/ML DW (14) EIMERIA
THIABENDAZOLE (TBZ; OMIZOLE) 100 MG/KG PO q24h X 5 DAYS  // 100 MG/KG PO 5D(3) ANTI-NEMATODES - OPHIDAS
MISCELLANEOUS Dose Comments /  Back to Top
DEXAMETHASONE 0.5-2.0 MG/KG PO SC DECEASE DOSE Q12H X 3-14 DAYS (14) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
DOXAPRAM -DOPRAM V-DOSAGE 5-10 MG/KG IV(3) OR IP (14) ANALEPTIC, RESPIRATORY STIMULANT
FUROSEMIDE 5-10 MG/KG SC IM q12h (14)   DIURETIC
LACTATED RINGER'S SOLUTION 50-100 ML/KG SC, IV IO q24h (14)   MAINTENANCE FLUID
OXYTOCIN 0.2-3.0 IU/KG SC IM IV (14) // 0.2-3 UNITS/KG SC IM(9) UTERINE/MILK HORM., DELAYED PARTURITION
PREDNISONE 0.5-2.2 MG/KG SC IM (14) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
VITAMIN B COMPLEX 0.02-0.20 MG/KG SC IM SUPPLEMENT
VITAMIN D 200-400 IU/KG SC IM (14) SUPPLEMENT
VITAMIN E 0.1 ML/100-250G SC SUPPLEMENT
VITAMIN K1 1-5 MG/KG IM q24h X 4 DAYS TO 4 WEEKS POISONING
EUTHANASIA Dose Comments / Back to Top
Sodium pentobarbital 150 mg/kg IP Controlled substance
Halothane To effect High Concentration, Rapid flow
Isoflurane To effect High Concentration, Rapid flow
CO2 To effect Requires some other method to ensure death
CO To effect See hazards under euthanasia training
Potassium chloride 1-2 mmol/kg IV IC Requires general anesthesia
Cervical dislocation Conditionally acceptable, Less than 200 grams Requires scientific justification by user and approval of IACUC, Requires special training and monitoring
Decapitation  Conditionally acceptable Requires scientific justification by user and approval of IACUC, Requires special training and monitoring, Hazard, requires special training for hazard, Equipment has to be maintained
Chloral hydrate Unacceptable  Not used in rats
Notes Abbreviations /  Back to Top
(1) = Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals: American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine: 1990
(2) = Laboratory Animal Anesthesia: Flecknell: 1989
(3) = Drug Dosages for Small Mammals: McKellar: 1989
(4) = Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals: NRC: 1992
(5) = Current Veterinary Therapy 2 Food Animal Practice
(6) = University of Calif., San Fran., Morrish
(7) = Basic Care of Experimental Animals
(8) = Therapeutic Guide and Anesthesia, O'Harndley
(9) = The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents
(10) = ???????? Continuing Education Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1992
(11) = USUHS Formulary
(12) = LAB ANIMAL OCT 91 PAGE 34
(13) = Anesthesia and Analgesia Doses, SCHAEFFER, KNOXVILLE, TN
(14) = Exotic Animal Formulary, Carpenter, Saunders:2001
EOD = Every Other Day
SID = Once a day
BID = Twice a day (generally every 12 hours)
TID = Three times a day (every 8 hours)
QID = Four times a day (every 6 hours)
Q?H = Every ? hours
IM = Intramuscular injection
IO = Intraosseous injection
IP = Intraperitoneal injection
SC or SQ = Subcutaneous injection
IV = Intravenous injection
PO = Per Os (By Mouth) (Orally)
DW = Drinking water
3DX4 = 3 days of treatment, repeated 4 times





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