Visual adaptations to dim light environments in pelagic and benthic organisms; zooplankton ecology, with emphasis on effects of downwelling light on distribution patterns; vertical migrations of macrozooplankton and micronekton
- Ph.D., Aquatic Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1987
Dr. James Case, major professor
- M.A., Aquatic Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1985
Dr. James Case, major professor
- B.S., Marine Biology with Great Distinction, California State University, Long Beach, 1980
Phi Beta Kappa
Professional and Research Experience
2008-present Associate Research Professor, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University
2004 - present Faculty of the Doctoral Program in Integrative Biology, Florida Atlantic University
2000 - present Affiliate Associate Professor, Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences
1998 - present Adjunct Associate Professor, Florida Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Sciences
1998 - 2007 Associate Scientist, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
1994 - 1997 Assistant Scientist, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
1991 - 1993 Postdoctoral Fellow, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Dr. Edith Widder, supervisor
1989 - 1991 NIH Postdoctoral Traineeship, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Dr. Lavern Weber and Dr. Donald Campbell, supervisor
1988 - 1989 Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Connecticut Health Center, Dr. Alan Fein, supervisor
Awards and Honors
1987 General Affiliates Best Dissertation Award
1987 Patent Fund Grant
1986 Regents Fellowship
1985 Graduate Research Grant
1980 Graduation with Great Distinction, CSULB
1980 Phi Beta Kappa
1979 Phi Kappa Phi
1976 Phi Eta Sigma
Research Grants (last 10 years)
Collaborative Research: Vertical migration in mesopelagic organisms:
understanding daytime depth and migration behavior in terms of downwelling
light and photoreceptor function. TM Frank, JH Cohen, EA Widder.
NSF Biological Oceanography: $880,747 + 42 days of shiptime pending
Operation Deep-Scope 2007: Characterization of cliff ecosystems using new
technologies. S Johnsen, TM Frank, EA Widder, M Matz, J Marshall
NOAA Ocean Exploration; $352,140 (includes 12 days of ship/
submersible time ) 2007 - 2008
Operation Deep-Scope 2005: Characterization of benthic and pelagic
ecosystems using new technologies. TM Frank, EA Widder, S Johnsen,
M Matz, JN Marshall, C Mazel
NOAA Ocean Exploration; $328,905 (includes 14 days of ship/
submersible time) 2005 - 2006
Adaptation of photoreceptor physiology to life history stage in
ontogenetically migrating deep-sea crustaceans – TM Frank
NSF Integrative Biology - $286,136 + 50 days ship time (RVs Pelican,
Wecoma, New Horizon, Cape Hatteras) 2004 - 2007
Exploration of vision and bioluminescence in the deep-sea benthos.
TM Frank, EA Widder
NOAA /Ocean Exploration; $151,800 (includes 6 days ship/sub time) 2002 - 2003
Proximate factors affecting vertical migrations in mesopelagic organisms
TM Frank, EA Widder
NSF Biological Oceanography; $329230 + 80 days shiptime (RVs Edwin
Link, Sea Diver, Seward Johnson) 1998 - 2001
Refereed Publications (last 10 years)
Frank TM, Porter M, Cronin TW (2008) Spectral sensitivity, visual pigments and screening pigments in two life history stages of the ontogenetic migrator Gnathophausia ingens. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Accepted
Cohen, J.H., and T. M. Frank (2007). Vision in the hyperiid amphipod Scina crassicornis. 87: 1202 - 1206
Cohen, J.H. and T. M. Frank (2006). Visual Physiology of the Antarctic Amphipod Abyssorchomene plebs. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 211: 140-148. (cover article)
Myslinski, T., T. M. Frank and E. A. Widder (2005). Correlation between photosensitivity and downwelling irradiance in mesopelagic crustaceans. Marine Biology 147(3): 619-629
Frank, T. M. (2004). Effects of light adaptation on the temporal resolution of deep-sea crustaceans. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43(4): 559 – 570.
Marshall, N. J., T. W. Cronin and T. M. Frank (2003). Visual adaptations in Crustaceans: chromatic, developmental, and temporal aspects. In: Sensory Processing in Aquatic Environments (S. P. Collin and N. J. Marshall, eds.), Springer, New York, pp. 343-372.
Vecchione M., C. F. E. Roper, E. A. Widder, T. M. Frank (2002). In-situ observations of three species of large-finned deep-sea squids. Bulletin of Marine Science 71(2): 893-901.
Frank, T. M. and E. A. Widder (2002). Effects of a decrease in downwelling irradiance on the daytime vertical distribution patterns of zooplankton and micronekton. Marine Biology 140: 1181-1193.
Widder, E. A. and T. M. Frank (2001). The speed of an isolume: a shrimp’s eye view. Marine Biology 138: 669-677.
Frank, T. M. (2000). Temporal Resolution in Mesopelagic Crustaceans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 355: 1195– 1198.
Frank, T. M. and E. A. Widder (1999). Comparative study of the spectral sensitivities of mesopelagic crustaceans. Journal of Comparative Physiology 185: 255-265.
Lindsay, S., M., T. M. Frank, J. Kent, J. C. Partridge, and M. I. Latz (1999). Spectral sensitivity of vision and bioluminescence in the midwater shrimp Sergestes similis. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 197: 348 – 360.
Frank, T. M. (1999). Comparative Study of Temporal Resolution in the Visual Systems of Mesopelagic Crustaceans. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 196: 137-144.
Professional Meeting Presentations (last 10 years)
Frank TM (2007) Vision in the Deep. Committee’s Choice Presentation. 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Orlando, Florida
Frank TM (2007) Are there physiological differences between the photoreceptors of juvenile and adult ontogenetic migrators? Society of Int. and Comp. Annual Biology Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Whitehill EAG, Frank TM (2007) Visual structural adaptations of life history stages of ontogenetically migrating crustaceans. Society of Int. and Comp. Annual Biology Meeting, Phoenix, AZ – best student poster award, Crustacean Society
Frank TM (2006) UV photosensitivity in a deep-sea benthic crab. 2006 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu Hawaii
Frank TM (2006) Do ontogenetic migrators adapt to different light environments during their life histories? 11th International Deep-Sea Biology Symposium, Southampton, UK
Cohen JH, Frank TM (2006) Eye structure and visual physiology of the copepod Gaussia princeps. 11th International Deep-Sea Biology Symposium, Southampton, UK
Frank TM (2003) Adaptations in deep-sea crustaceans for vision in light-limited environments. Invited Symposium Speaker. Society of Int. and Comp. Biology Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada
Frank TM (2001) Differences in temporal resolution mimic differences in spatial resolution in the photoreceptors of euphausiid crustaceans. International Conference on Invertebrate Vision, Backaskog Castle, Sweden
Frank TM, Widder EA (2000) Downwelling irradiance determines the daytime distribution patterns of several species of vertical migrators in Oceanographer Canyon. 2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Antonio, TX
Myslinski T, Frank TM (2000) Relationship between light sensitivity threshold and daytime depth distribution in two species of vertically migrating mesopelagic shrimp. 2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Antonio, TX
Frank TM (1999) Temporal resolution of the photoreceptors of mesopelagic crustaceans. Sensory Processing of the Aquatic Environment – 1st Int’l Conference, Australia
Widder EA, Frank TM (1998) The Speed of an Isolume: A Shrimp’s Eye View. 1998 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Diego, CA
Frank TM (1998) Flicker Fusion Frequency as a Measure of Temporal Resolution in the Photoreceptors of Deep-Sea Crustaceans. 1998 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Diego, CA
Frank TM, Widder EA (1998) In Situ Measurements of the Distribution Patterns of Vertical Migrators in Oceanographer Canyon Correlated With In Situ Measurements of Downwelling Light. 1998 Ocean Sciences Meeting, San Diego, CA
Oceanographic Cruise Experience
1980 – 2007 80 cruises, 1-6 weeks duration:
Chief scientist on 46 cruises on RVs Edwin Link/Seward Johnson I, Seward Johnson II with Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, New Horizon, Pelican, Sea Diver, Wecoma, Cape Hatteras
Invited participant on 32 cruises on HMS Discovery (United Kingdom), RVs Knorr, Lulu, New Horizon, Pelican, Suncoaster, Sonne (Germany), Velero IV
Activities included midwater (MOCNESS, Tucker Trawl and RMT-8 Trawl) and benthic trawling (Otter Trawl); CTD sampling; in situ quantifications of population structure of pelagic organisms; in situ measurements of downwelling irradiance; blue water diving for collections of fragile gelatinous zooplankton; shipboard experiments on crustacean behavioral responses to light; shipboard electrophysiological recordings of spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution of mesopelagic crustaceans
Webpages associated with research cruises
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution / Florida Atlantic University Semester-by-the-Sea
Functional Biology of Marine Animals (BSC4933): 3 credit lecture, 1 credit lab
Description: an overview of the functional biology of marine animals, including physiology, feeding, locomotion, morphology and sensory biology. Emphasis is on identifying major biological challenges to extreme environments, and studying structural, functional and behavioral adaptations to deal with these challenges
Marine Science 1 – Chemical and Geological Oceanography (BSC4931): 2 credit lecture.
Topics in geological oceanography include structure of the earth, plate tectonics, marine provinces and sediments. Topics in chemical oceanography include seawater composition, dissolved gases, carbonate system, and nutrient cycles.
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution/Florida Institute of Technology
Guest Lecturer - Invertebrate Zoology – introduction to the crustaceans (lecture/lab)
Guest Lecturer – Deep-Sea Biology – pelagic ecosystems
Outreach and Service
1997 – 1999 Instructor – Woman in Science
NSF funded program to introduce women re-entering the work force to science. Collaboration between Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution and Indian River Community College under leadership of Drs. Sue Cook and Shirley Pomponi
1997 – chief scientist on research cruise for BRIDGE program (P.I. Matt Gilligan, Georgia State University) designed to foster participation of underrepresented minorities in the marine sciences; advisor for two undergraduate student projects presented at SICB
Lincoln Park Academy High School (FL) – Steve Shotola, contact – yearly lectures
Atlanta International High School, Atlanta GA – Rhonda Hill, contact – every other year
Oak Park/River Forest High School, Oak Park IL – Michelle Baer, contact–every other year
University of Tennessee, Knoxville – Dr. David J. Fox, contact – yearly
Public Lectures – HBOI Ocean Science Lecture Series – yearly, 2000 – 2007
NOSB Technical Advisory Panel, Biology and Chemistry–2003, 2005
COSEE Summer Institute in Ocean Science for Middle School Teachers
Science Advisor – Cedar Key, FL, June 2004
Teacher Training Workshop – NOAA/OE, Ft. Pierce, FL, Sept. 2005
Science Fair Judge, St. Lucie Cty. and Indian River Cty, School Districts – 1995 – 2006
National Ocean Science Bowl – Science Judge and Moderator – 1999 – 2007
Instructor for FAU Institute for Lifelong Learning - 2007
- Discovery Channel/BBC Blue Planet: The Deep; 1999-2002
- Discovery Channel/Al Giddings, Jim Lipscomb Cuba:Forbidden Depths; 1999
- National Geographic/Roger Jackman Ocean Drifters; 1993
- Discovery Channel/Jack McKenney Prod. Inc. Ocean Currents: Secrets of the Deep; 1992
Jon Cohen, Ph.D. Duke University, 2004 - 2006
Nicole McMullen, Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci. – current, M.S.
Elizabeth Whitehill, M.S. 2007 - Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci.
Trevor Myslinski, M.S. 2002 - Florida Institute of Technology, Biology Department
Monique Salazar, Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci. – current, M.S.
Megan Geidner, Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci. – current, M.S.
Mikki McComb, Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci. – current, Ph.D.
Miranda Hoover, Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci – current, Ph.D.
Alexa McDermott , Florida Atlantic University, Dept. Biol. Sci. – current, M.S.
Scott Burkhardt, University of South Florida, Center for Marine Science – Ph.D. 2007
Kathleen Daumer, M.S. - Florida Institute of Technology, Biology Department (2000 – 2003)
Erin Fisher (2000 – 2001), Nicole McMullen (2002), Ashley Aines (2003), Katie Olds (2005), Tess Geers (2006)
Biological Bulletin, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Deep-sea Research, Part I, Estuaries, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Journal of Experimental Biology, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, Journal of Plankton Research, Journal of Neurology, Marine and Freshwater Behavior and Physiology, Marine Biology, Naturwissenschaften, Science
NSF – Biological Oceanography; NSF - Education and Human Resources; NSF - Integrative Organismal Biology; NOAA- National Undersea Research Program ; NOAA – Ocean Exploration; Sea Grant; NERC (United Kingdom)